﻿ Limit or just beginning (Part-2 : Matter) - Go Physics

# Limit or just beginning (Part-2 : Matter)

(Last Updated On: December 26, 2018)

### Limit or just beginning (Part-2 : Matter)

Concept of the title has already been discussed in part I of this article. This part is for further information which makes us to think and discuss about such topics. There won’t be anything new but just ongoing style of exploration in nature, which may take your patience at upper level but that is what we are here for. So let us go for same.

### Matter

It is simply anything that you see around you or within you. It is touchable, movable and observable and it is real. We have plenty of matter available in universe. Different matters have different specific properties. It can occupy space and it is available in good variety. It might be available in different physical forms such as solid, liquid or gas. We have huge branch of science entirely dealing with matter called Material Science.

In short and sweet we know a lot about matter about its origin or its creation. But we haven’t any clue about how matter looks in picture. Obviously we would take some help from different valid theories but still clear cut idea about matter’s origin is far.

So what made me to put Matter into this discussion? Let us focus on that particular point?

According to Atomic Theory by Dalton and other minds of the time, simplest form of matter is known as Element.

Any type of matter that you take is composed of basic particles called molecules. Same type of matter contains same molecules while different kind of matter contains different kind of molecules.

These molecules are not fundamental particles; they are also composed of basic particles called Atoms in specific ratio. These Atoms are all same for same element and different for different elements.

These atoms are not still fundamental particles of matter, there are sub atomic particles named as Proton, Neutron and electron. Their number changes as the element changes. They are in same number in atoms of same element and different in numbers for different elements.  Now content of matter within any object is called as Mass of that object.

Mass is physical quantity of any physical (Newtonian or non Newtonian object) object, which is constant for given frame of reference for that object.

Sub atomic particles as mentioned above contains mass too, meaning they are the main building blocks for the mass of any object.

So I can say as below;

Mass of object = ( Np * Mp ) + ( Nn * Mn ) +( Ne * Me )

Where –   Np=Numbers of Protons, Mp=Mass of proton, Nn=Numbers of Neutron, Mn=Mass of Neutron, Ne =Numbers of Electron, Me =Mass of electron

Generally, mass of electron is neglected since it is extremely small in size and has very small mass which is practically negligible.

If we observe the structure of atom we will notice that most of the mass or matter is concentrated at the nucleus or the center of the atom and rest of the atomic region has space only. More than 99% of atom contains space only (from nucleus to the farthest electronic orbit or shell), and rest is mass or matter.

So you might be thinking problem is solved about the matter, but not really.

These are still not fundamental particles for the matter, they are not still fundamental but they are composed other particles called Quarks. Hence they are not fundamental particles but composite particles (sometimes called Hadrons). Quarks were first introduced by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in a year of 1961. Different types of quarks naturally combined with each other through electrical field to form sub atomic particles which are composite particles.

### What quarks are doing in there?

Discoveries have mentioned few types of quarks such as up quarks, down quarks, top quarks, bottom quarks and strange quarks. Different quarks combines through gluons to form composite particles (Protons, Neutrons, electrons etc). It is known that Quarks have mass too, which further means that sub atomic particles are not ultimate source of mass but Quarks are, which means quarks are the responsible for the matter (or mass of an object).

But how did they get property of mass?

Why/how were they formed?

What natural phenomenon formed them?

Let us try to investigate this problem with brighter side of modern physics. First tool that I think we should use is Energy Mass equivalence formula.

Energy mass equivalence;

E = M * C2

Where –   E= energy, M= Mass of object, C= speed of light (constant)

Above formula can be rewritten as below,

E / M = constant = C2

Meaning, Energy of an object per Mass is always constant if it is travelling with speed of light.

Simply Mass and Energy can be interchanged to keep the speed equal to speed of light constant and absolute.

If numerator of above equation (E) is increased, then denominator of that equation will also increase in order to keep the ratio constant (equal to C2).

So we can get small clue about Mass or matter and its origin. Now, let us imagine the picture of birth of our universe, 13.7 billion years ago (14 billion approximately).

What do we see?

A universe, infinitely dense, ultra hot, highly unstable and uncertain, unpredictable and with a great entropy. It is still unknown how actually it might have looked a like because it is difficult for us to imagine how stuff might be within that Point. Now, big bang occurred releasing enormous amount of energy and radiation. It radiated the space and illuminated it with beauty of true nature and its energy.

If you want to take good look of big bang at your place.

Take one good firecracker in empty and dark room, ignite the firecracker and record its explosion. You will see good vision of big bang or idea that how it might have looked at the time of big bang.

After release of energy, it might have converted to the matter according to above equation, but again it takes us to the previous topic of article which was about energy.

Ultimately this case follows same tradition of Egg or Chicken. It may goes to the infinite loop of No Answer. If matter came to existence after conversion of energy into the matter then where does that energy came from. So it makes question more difficult. This one approach in science can open thousands of mysteries hidden into the nature; so obviously it would be bit harder.

So what can we do for this issue?

There is one way in science to get something good conceptually, it is to find clues one after another and keep proceeding for conclusion. I think we can try to go through that way for our problem of matter. To begin our detective work,

What is known basic building block of matter, let us say it is a0 Quark. Now we would have to check whether there is any field existing around the quark. Here we have to note that quarks are not easily observable and in addition they are not available in individual form, but they are discovered as in divisible compositions of sub atomic particle (sometimes called Hadrons).

It need good research work to study field around quarks (except gravitational and electrical field) if it is there any. If there is any field other than gravitational and electrical then we will have to find characteristics.  No question for that if there is not.

After studying field, it may lead us to new clue towards the origin of quarks. But they are still our postulates without any theoretical framework.

Let us take another possibility, there is no any field around the quark to study and find clues. What to do to proceed further?

Let’s us say radiation of ultra high energy and frequency gave some mysterious non fundamental force in space-time and gave some kind of chain reaction or any repeating process for the production of quarks. And that radiation might have been originated from nothing but the big bang. Actually we are somewhat close to the theory of big bang which indirectly relates energy-mass equivalence.

Energy is just ability of nature (living and non living being including every known or unknown stuff every particle of universe).

Universe; weather it look very hard or very simple it’s not our business. How much time will it take from us to understand its strangeness? At what level of increasing intelligent we would be able to grasp its functions and its origins. It’s just a Universe, get out and solve it.